Using Prefetch, Preload and Preconnect for speeding page load times

Prefetch, Preload and Preconnect are mechanisms supported by modern web browsers that allow efficient loading of web resources.

Preload allows controlling how resources such as images, CSS and JavaScript files are loaded on the current page. For each resource that we want to preload, we have to use a link tag with rel=“preload” attribute. The following examples show how to preload resources:

<!-- allows preloading an image -->
<link rel="preload" href="image.png">
<!-- allows preloading a font file -->
<link rel="preload" href="" as="font" crossorigin>
<!-- allows preloading css -->
<link rel="preload" href="" as="style">

The main benefit of the preload directive is that it allows important resources to be loaded earlier. For example if there is a stylesheet or image that is required for a page to display properly, then it can be preloaded by adding the relevant link tags in the head section of the document.

Prefetch is similar to preload but allows efficient loading of resources that are likely to be accessed by the user, such as a next or previous link. A drawback of prefetch is that it can cause certain page metrics such as ad statistics, visitor count etc to be miscalculated. For example Google Chrome has been known to miscalculate web analytics stats. There are three types of prefetch directives:

  • link-prefetch. It allows a link to be fetched in advance before it has been clicked by the user. The contents of the link are saved to the browser cache
  • dns-prefetch. It allows the host name of the resource to be resolved in advance. It eliminates the dns resolution step when the resource is requested by the user
  • pre-render. It allows a resource to be fetched and processed before being requested by the user. For example a link marked with the directive rel=“prerender” will be fetched and processed by the browser. It should be used with caution as it can consume resources on mobile devices
  • preconnect. The preconnect directive allows establishing tcp connections for a resource before it is actually requested. For example tls negotiations, tcp handshake and dns resolutions.

See the article Resource Hints - What is Preload, Prefetch, and Preconnect? for more information on using Prefetch, Preload and Preconnect.

Published 19 Feb 2018

Pak Jiddat provides open source scripts and tutorials related to Web Development and System Administration.